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The Cross-Cultural Generalizability of Western Spirituality and Religiosity Constructs to the Philippines: Spirituality as a Universal Aspect of Human Experience

by Gabriel S. Dy-Liacco
Loyola College in Maryland


This study will contribute to the development of spiritual and religious constructs by empirically examining their universal appeal and the unique roles that these may play in the psychological system. Toward this aim, this study will assess the cross-cultural generalizability of Western spirituality and religiosity to a non-Western culture. Spirituality was construed as a motivational drive in the psychological system and operationalized in the Faith Maturity Scale (FMS; Benson, Donahue, & Erickson, 1993), which assesses one’s sense of relationship with God and the degree to which this perception leads to altruistic commitments. Religiosity was construed as a sentiment and operationalized in a Religiosity Index (RI; Piedmont, 2001; 2004), which assesses how actively a person performs religious behaviors. Scale reliability analyses, confirmatory factor analyses, cross-observer convergence, structural regression modeling, and incremental validity analyses will be conducted to test the generalizability of these scales. The replication of the normative properties and predictive effects of the spirituality scale in the non-Western culture, without mediation by the five-factor model of personality, will add to a growing body of evidence demonstrating the relevance and usefulness of construing spirituality as a universal aspect of human experience.

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Religious Leaders
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The Mystical Core
of Organized Religion